References referred to with ref.:
PPQ = Parma Penyanë Quettaron by Boris Shapiro, at http://www.elvish.org/gwaith/ppq.htm
|ada||against, opposed to, opposite
(VT43:33) called a root in VT43: "The contemporary list of prepositions mentioned in the discussion of aselye above gives the root ara 'along side' (in apparent contrast with another root, ada 'against, opposed to, opposite')". The list mentioned here contains also onyë, its paradigm is shown fully on p.29
Note: ada is not a plausible word in Quenya, postvocalic d regularly changes to r. So it would normally develop to ara, with which it would merge.
(VT42:33) ala- reduced to al- before a vowel.
See the discussion of the lá particle.
[AM 2] prefix: amban upward slope, hill-side, ambapenda, ampenda adj. uphill, ambaron ambarón-, Ambarónë uprising, sunrise, orient. Forms ama, amba are found under root [UNU] and glossed up (unclear: prefix, adverb?), cf. unu, undu. There is an adverb amba up(wards)
|ama||cf. am-, amba-|
[ANA 1] refers to [NÁ], which is an old unrevised section of Etymologies with entries "which remain in an extremely difficult original form" (LR:374): an, ana, na to, towards, prefix ana-.
See also the allative ending -nna
an- intensive or superlative prefix: ancalima most bright
an conjunction for
an until (Arctic sentence)
an unknown: es sorni heruion an! the Eagles of the Lords are at hand (SD:290)
ná, nán on the contrary, on the other hand [NDAN]
only attested as prefix in apacenyë adj. plural of foresight (lit. after-sight i.e. sight of what comes after) (MR:216), Apanónar pl. the Afterborn = Men (WJ:387), and *ap-pata walk behind (early Sindarin? Common Eldarin?) (WJ:387). An older form is ala after, beyond used in the first version of Oilima Markirya (MC:221) ala fuin oilimaite after the last night, and in the second version (MC:214): aira móre ala tinwi lante no lanta-mindon? the old darkness beyond the stars falling upon fallen towers. For beyond see pella.
|ar-||outside, beside (local sense)
[AR 2] prefix: Arvalin outside Valinor
|ara||outside, beside (local sense); along side
[AR 2] has outside, beside (local sense)
(VT43:33) see comments by ada
(LT2:335) has: "GL has athra 'accross, athwart' [...][to which] is compared Qenya arta."
arta exalted, lofty (PM:354) found only in compounds
arta fort, fortress [3AR, GARAT]
(VT43:29, 30): with suffix: (sg2) aselyë. From Common Eldarin as which is related to ar and. aselyë replaced carelyë (car + elyë) which replaced olessë (ó + pron. sg. 2 -le + locative -ssë) in the Aia María. Notice the lack of rhotacism in the suffixed form.
|back, again, re-
cf. adverb ata
|accross, over, lying from side to side
(VT43:33) called root, it is found on the list of prepositions with onyë discussed in aselyë on p.29. Cf. atar
atta can easily be confused with the number two
|atar||for, on behalf of
(VT43:33) maybe from root ata + allative r, which is found on the list of prepositions with onyë discussed in aselyë on p.29. atarme translates for us in pray for us sinners. Replaced first by meterme, then by rá men and rámen
not recommended in this sense because of the replacements, Tolkien was obviously experimenting
(WJ:366, 368) verbal prefix indicating separation from the point of view of the place or thing left (what separates is discarded): auciri- means cut off to get rid of. From root [AWA]
[AWA] privative prefix, the root means away, forth; out. This ava- must not be confused with the one from root ABA.
See the discussion of the lá particle.
avanótë without number, countless [AWA] [AR 2]
avalatya- to close (i.e. to unopen) (VT41:6)
ava adverb outside [AWA]
|denotes refusal or prohibition
(WJ:370) The root ABA, distinct from AWA in Etym, is a latecomer: second half of 1950s. It changes the meaning of the Etym root [AB] go to that of refusal, prohibition. This prefix ava- must not be confused with the one from [AWA]. The usual form of the prefix is ava-; vá- can be used as verbal prefix.
See the discussion of the lá particle.
váquet- to say no, refuse, forbid
avaquétima not to be said, that must not be said
avanyárima not to be told or related
|behind, at back of place
(VT43:30): "a list of prepositions and a related discussion in a small bundle of papers apparently dating from the mid-1950s (one of the sheets is dated 'Nov. 1955') gives the forms ca, cata, cana 'behind, at back of place'; ...". Question: are these prepositions, prefixes or adverbs? Cf. car
(VT43:29) possibly from canyë, calë, ca- unglossed (in the preposition table with onyë on this VT page), + allative r. Probably unrelated to ca, cata, cana. carelyë replaces olessë cf ó, o, and is replaced later by aselyë cf. as
not recomended because of ca, cata, cana, and the fact it was replaced by as
|en-||over there, yonder
[EN] element or prefix
en look there! yonder
enta adj. that yonder
Entar, Entarda Thither-lands, Middle-Earth, Outer-lands, east
(Namárië, RGEO:67, VT41:16): enquantuva shall refill
(LotR bk.V ch.8, WR:395): Envinyatar renewer
(MR:405): envinyanta healed pas.participle
(UT:317): enyal- to recall
(Fíriel's Song): Toi aina, mána, meldielto - enga morion They are holy, blessed, and beloved - save the dark one. In later Quenya, hequa could be used.
(VT42:32) there glossed after, this was corrected to before by Bill Welden in elfling 5758 (Aug 8, 2001). epe was at some time used in comparisons: A kalima epe B A is brighter than B, in the same way as we use lá. The confusion 'before/after' is apparent here: epessë after-name, nickname, mostly given as a title of admiration or honour (PM:339, UT:266). See apacenyë in apa for a similar confusion.
|et||out; + ablative out of
[ET]; (LotR bk. VI ch. 5, SD:56): Et Eärello Endorenna utúlië Out of the Great-sea to Middle-Earth I am come
(VT43:14) In the last version of Átaremma, who art in heaven is rendered as i ëa han ëa who exists beyond the universe. The postposition pella was known at the time, it appears in the previous version as an alternative preposition in i ëa pell' ëa
|hequa||leaving aside, not counting, excluding, except
(WJ:365). See also enga
|away, from, from among
(WJ:368) the point of view is outside the thing, place or group in though. As proclitic it was a verbal prefix: hociri- to cut off so as to have or use a required portion (auciri- is to cut off to throw away, cf. au-). As enclitic it was suffixed to nouns, and became the genitive -ó. It is attested as preposition from in Etym [3O, 3Ó], cf. ho.
ilfirin inmortal [PHIR]
ilqua everything, all (Fíriel's Song)
ilquen everybody (WJ:372)
ilaurëa, ilyarëa daily
|imbë||between; (possibly) among
Namárië: imbe met between us two
(VT43:30) imi inside + ica partitive ending
|a multiplicative prefix: many
lilótëa having many flowers (VT42:18)
lindornëa having many oak-trees [LI]
lillassëa having many leaves (Markirya)
limbë many (LT2:324)
|meter||towards the end, i.e. for the purpose of, on behalf of
(VT43:33) from [MET] end + allative r. meterme translates for us in pray for us sinners. Replaces atarme, is later replaced by rá men and rámen
[MI] mí = mi + i in the (Namárië)
|to the inside, into
[MI] minna is allative of mi, so is mir < mid < mi + da
(VT43:30) mitta (QL:61 mí-2); also cites mina
|na||cf. an, ana, na|
prefix [*NDAT] < [DAT] (VT44:8)
found in nattir- despise = look down at
(MC:214); Etym [NÚ] glosses it under, but in all other sources this meaning is given to nu
|after (of time)
(VT43:23, QL:66) QL-root NÓ (ca. 1915) ahead, in front, after (of time), tomorrow
prefix nó- in alternative month names (PM:135)
In the Merin sentence (a sentence attributed to Tolkien, the authenticity is not confirmed, cf. http://www.elvish.org/elm/merin.html), nó means before. In Etymologies root NU, no means under, and in VT41:13 and VT43:23 it is the conjunction but.
(LR:56, Markirya, Namárië, RGEO:66, MC:214).
nún adverb down below, underneath
|with (dual, implying a one-to-one relationship)
(VT43:29) shows, from the mid-1950s, the paradigm of preposition ó (usually reduced to o when unstressed) glossed with: Singular 1st onye, óni, 2nd olye, óle, 3rd óse, 3rd ósa (ós), 3rd ótar; Plural 1st óme, 2nd óle, 3rd óte, 3rd óta (ót), 3rd ótari. The use of this preposition may be deprecated, as Tolkien later (1959-60) in 'Quendi and Eldar' states "This does not remain in Q as an independent word" (WJ:367).
It is also a prefix used in words describing the meeting, junction, or union of two things or persons, or of two groups thought of as units, root WO (WJ:367). This clarifies the Etym [WO] entry glossing it together.
omentië meeting of two people or groups (LotR bk. I ch. 5, WJ:367). (WJ:367) "This prefix was normally unstressed in verbs or derivatives of verbs; or generally when the next following syllable was long".
|or||above; on, upon
(Cirion's Oath): ar i Eru i or ilyë mahalmar eä tennoio and of the One who is above all thrones forever
(LT1:256, MC:216) on, upon
(Markirya): elenillor pella from beyond the stars
(Namárië, RGEO:66): Andúnë pella beyond the West
(VT43:13): preposition i ëa pell' ëa who exists beyond the universe
|rá||for, on behalf of
+ dative: rá men, rámen for us, on our behalf
(VT43:33) likely from root ara along side; rá men, rámen translates for us in pray for us sinners. Replaces meterme, that replaced atarme.
(VT43:30); compare locative -ssë
|tenna||until, up to, as far as
tenn' Ambar-metta until the end of the world (Elendil's Oath)
tennoio adv. forever (Cirion's Oath)
[TER, TERES] (UT:317 CO, Narqelion)
|without, destitute of, usually + genitive; prefix not-, un-, in-, later changed to bad, difficult, impossible
[UGU, UMU] (VT39:14)
See the discussion of the lá particle.
undulávë down-licked, covered (Namárië)
compare possessive -va?
|yo||with (implying union of three or more)
YO not attested as such, but as prefix in yomenië meeting, gathering of more than two (WJ:407 Note 1), so it's basic meaning would be to describe the meeting, junction, or union of more than two things or persons, or of groups thought of as units, parallelling WO prefix and preposition ó, o with (dual), as in omentië meeting, gathering of two, cf. ó, o. Helge's argument for translating yo as with is based on yo hildinyar which he interprets as with my heirs (SD:56, early version of EO).
[AM 2], cf. prefix am-, amba-
[UNU] cites ama, amba
(LotR bk. VI ch. 4, Letters:308) Andavë laituvalmet! Long we will praise them!; notice -lme-, which in the 2nd edition of LotR means 'we exclusive'
From anda adj. long
|aqua||fully, completely, altogether, wholly
cf. prefix ata-, at-
[AWA]. See prefixes au-, ava-
possibly also adjective?
(Fíriel's Song): ananta úva táre fárea, ufárea! but yet it will not be enough, not enough
[PHAR] has farea
(VT43:20, 16) replaced by ya(n), later by sívë as (here)
e.g. as we forgive:
(At-I and IIa): ier emme avatyarir
(VT43:18) = il all + aurë day + ëa adj. ending
(VT44:9) = il all + lumë time (short form)
(VT43:16) these were replaced by ya... [ar] san..., yan... [ar] san..., then by sívë as (here, now) and later by tambë as (there)
e.g. on earth as it is in heaven:
(At-I): ier menelle ar tér cemenze
(At-IIa): ier menelze tier cemenze
|no||then, next time
(VT43:23, QL:66) QL-root NÓ ahead, in front, after (of time), tomorrow
|nún||down below, underneath
[NÚ]; cf. nu prep. under
|san||thus, so; then, at that time
(VT47:17) thus, so
(MC:216) then, introducing a historical description
(VT40 Narqelion): 2x then, at that time
|now; here; thus
(Namárië, RGEO:67, LR:47, SD:310): sí now
[SI] (LR:47): sin now (before vowels)
(SD:247, 310): sín now (before vowels)
(Fíriel's Song): sí here
(PM:401): sin this, thus, sin quentë Quendingoldo Elendilenna this/thus Pengolodh said to Elendil
(VT43:22): hyázë = [SI] si > sy > hy this, here, now + ázë > árë sunlight root AS warmth or arë day [AR 1]; síra has adjectival suffix -a as in íra eternal or AS reversed to ra.
(VT43:24, Etymological notes 1968): from [SI] this, here, now
|sillumë||noun this hour
(VT44:35) et sillumello from this hour, from now; sin + lumë (short form of lúmë time, hour)
presumably, one could say sillumessë now, at this moment, tenna sillumë until now
|sinomë||in this place
(LotR bk. VI ch. 6, SD:56)
|sívë||as, as here
(VT43:20, 17) sí here, now + ve as. Replaces ier and yan
(At-V): cemendë sívë meneldë on earth as in heaven, this sívë will be replaced by tambë as (there) in At-VI
(At-V and VI): sív' emmë apsenet as (here) we forgive
|tambë||as, as there
(VT43:20, 17) ta(n) there + ve as. Replaces ier and yan, and one case of sívë
(At-VI): cemendë tambë meneldë on earth as (there) in heaven
|tárë||in that day
(Cirion's Oath), cf. preposition tenna
|undu||down, under, beneath
[UNU]; also prefix
|ullumë||(Fíriel's Song) not for ever, possibly lit. not ever, not always
(VT44:9) glosses for ever..., meaning not for ever (lambegolmor 110-113)
(Namárië, RGEO:66, Markirya, MC:213, 214); in Narqelion it means in or as. Cf. sívë, tambë as
[BOR] (LT1:250, 273, Narqelion)
(VT43:20, 16) replaces ier, later replaced by sívë as (here)
e.g. as we forgive those:
(At-IIb, II and IV): yan emme avatyarilta
(VT43:16) these replaced ier... [ar] tér..., ier... [ar] tier..., then they were replaced by sívë as (here, now) and later by tambë as (there)
e.g. on earth as it is in heaven:
(At-IIb): ya(n) menelde ar san cemende
(At-III): san cemende ya menelde na
|yallumë||at last (LR:72 FS)
but yalúmë former times [YA]
|yalúmessë||once upon a time
[YA] cf. yalúmë former times, yalúmëa olden
but yallumë at last (LR:72 FS)
Namárië: An sí Tintallë Varda Oiolossëo ve fanyar máryat Elentári ortanë For now the Kindler, Varda, from [Mount] Everwhite, like clouds her hands the Star-queen has uplifted
|ananta||and yet, but yet
Fíriel's Song: ananta úva táre fárea, ufárea! but yet it will not be enough, not enough.
[NDAN], the root means back
[AR 2], passim
arë is an alternate form (VT43:31)
(VT43:30) C.E. as- which gives preposition as with is related to conjuction ar
|er||only, but, still
er one, alone [ERE]
erinqua adj. single, alone
(VT43:23) mal appears in final versions of At.V-VI, replacing onë, ono, on', anat (rejected) (At.I-VI). Etymology obscure.
|but, on the contrary, on the other hand
[NDAN] has ná, nán, the root means back
Fíriel's Song: Nan úye sére indo-ninya símen, ullume But my hearth resteth not here for ever; nan avoids the confusion with forms of the verb to be ná, nán
(VT41:13,VT43:23) ore nin karitas nó namin alasaila I feel moved to do so but judge it unwise (written in 1968). VT43:23 comments on one, ono, on' used in earlier At.I-IV, but later replaced by mal in the final 2 versions, as possibly relating to this late nó
(VT43:23) elided on'; used in the first versions At.I-III, replaced by mal. Cognate of nó but (1968), probably related to (QL:66) QL-root NÓ prep. nó, no after (of time), adv. no then, next (of time); also to prefix nó- in alternative month names (PM:135)
(Fíriel's Song); later conjunction an?
(QL), obsoletes reconstruction ecar from Sindarin egor (Helge Fauskanger)
a vanimar o beautiful ones (LotR bk. VI ch. 6, Letters:308)
a laita, laita te bless, bless them! (LotR bk. VI ch. 4, Letters:308)
Cormacolindor, a laita tárienna! The Ring-bearers, praise [them] to the height! (LotR bk. VI ch. 4, Letters:308)
á vala Manwë may Manwë order it! (lit. rule, Manwë!) (WJ:404)
a antalë men >> alyë anta men >> ámen anta give us (VT43 Átaremma line 6)
ar ávatyara mello >> ar ámen apsene and forgive us (VT43 Átaremma line 7); notice the contraction ávatyara = á avatyara
alyë arca >> á hyamë rá men (rámen) pray for us (VT43 Aia María line 6)
note Imperative and (desiderative) subjunctive are very close. This function may also be expressed with the verb to be preceding a verb or other word (VT43:14):
(Átaremma V-VI final): aranielya na tuluva (future) thy kingdom come
(Átaremma VI final): na care (aorist) indómelya thy will be done
(Átaremma I replaced): na etrúna (aorist) me ulcallo deliver us from evil
interjection (Namárië, RGEO:66; also twice in Narqelion, untranslated.). Older form was nai ?
|ela||behold! imperative element directing sight to an actually visible object
|en||there, look! yonder
[EN], cf. prefixes
|particle denoting uncertainty
(VT42:34) lá karitas alasaila ké nauva not doing it might prove unwise. Tolkien altered ké to kwí(or kwíta) except in this example ; ke in Welden's note is a misspelling for ké (elfling 5758, Aug. 8, 2001). (VT44:38) kwíta suggests a verbal form.
The troubled history of this particle and its root can be found in VT42:32-34 in an article by Bill Welden. The AL/LA root (originally represented by il-, ul-) expresses negation. For example, in the prayers written in the early 1950s (VT43), ala, ála is the negative imperative particle: álamë tulya do not lead me.
But this root "had too much to do", having many disparate semantic contents. In the late 1950s, the root's negative meanings were 'banned': lá became an interjection of pleasure and assent, meaning yes instead of no. A new root appeared, ABA, to represent "refusal and negative command" (future aspect), changing the sense of the Etym's [AB] root, (cf. WJ:370). This new ABA does not absorb the privative words attributed in Etym to [AWA], which retains it sense of 'away, forth; out' (cf. WJ:365). The new negative imperative form from ABA is ava, áva, so do not lead me would have to be re-written as ávamë tulya in this period.
In the late 1960s, Tolkien reinstated ALA as the negative root. We are now left with a refusal form, ABA (ava-, vá-, áva, vá) coexisting with a negation form ALA (ala-, al-, lá), and with residues of the privative meanings of the [AWA] root. The word lá can be used to negate nouns, adjectives and verbs. It can only accept pronominal suffixes to negate a previously stated verb (which must not be explicitely stated in the lá clause), for example: have you eaten? amátiel? no, I haven't! lanyë!. The prefix ala- (or al- before a vowel) coexists with ava- (from ABA and from AWA!): alasaila unwise, next to avaquétima not to be said, that must not be said (ABA), avanótë without number, countless (AWA).
There is yet another negative form: ú. Originally denoting mere negation (contrasting with il-, ul- which denoted opposite, reversal, as in ilfirin inmortal, ullume not for ever), it changed to 'denial of fact (past and established present)' in the late 1950s when the AL/LA forms were rejected and the root AB 'go' was modified to ABA 'refusal, negative command (future)'. When ALA was (re)introduced in the late 1960s, the meaning of ú was changed to 'bad, uneasy, hard', so únótima changed from numberless to difficult, impossible to count.
Unfortunately, the clear distinctions maintained by Tolkien in different periods get somewhat blurred by all these forms coexisting. See also vá
|no indeed not, on the contrary; also used for asking incredulous questions
|lenémë||with leave; + genitive with leave of (SD:246)|
|expresses negative will or wish
(WJ:370-371) root ABA: short vá!, also in first person ván, ványë, ávan I will not, do not; vammë, avammë we won't, we don't (in the 1960s, change to valmë, avalmë, the new exclusive 'we'). áva, avá > Exilic ava is actually the imperative á + vá and is used for negative imperative.
See also lá
|nai||be it that + future tense
Nai hiruvalyë Valimar! Nai elyë hiruva! May thou find Valimar. May even thou find it! (Namárië).
Nai tiruvantes be it that they will guard it i.e. may they guard it (UT:305, 317 Cirion's Oath)
|be it so, amen
(VT43:24): ná be + san, sië thus
|yë||untranslated interjection when Aragorn found the sapling of the White Tree: yeah!|
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Alex Grigny de Castro